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The Three PID Terms

Modified 5 days ago by Dev Ramesh

Modified today by Rachel Ma

Student version

Hardware

  • Basestation
  • Part 1 of drone

Previous lesson - Intro to PID

Knowledge -

  • What each term of a PID controller does
  • Why each term is important
  • Rough mathematical understanding of how each term works

Skills - Tuning a PID loop

The Three PID Terms

STANDARDS: Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)

Modified today by Rachel Ma

ISTE: 1. d.: Understand the fundamental concepts of technology operations, demonstrate the ability to choose, use and troubleshoot current technologies and are able to transfer their knowledge to explore emerging technologies.

Assessments and Evidence of Understanding

Modified today by Rachel Ma

By the end of this lesson, students will understand the different terms used in PID systems.

AGENDA (Brief Summary of Activities)

Modified today by Rachel Ma

5 min: Introduction to lesson

40 min: Go over definitions of PID terms and their effects

5 min: Conclusion

Differentiation (strategies for grouping, ELL, and inclusion)

Modified 2020-04-16 by Garrett Warren

Advanced preparation/Materials/Set Up (Including Misconceptions)

Modified today by Rachel Ma

Materials needed

Teacher Materials

  • Projector for displaying videos or slides
  • Reference the student textbook, EdX and Youtube videos (both linked in the useful resources section below) for more detailed explanations of concept snad examples

SCRIPT OF TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Modified 2020-04-16 by Garrett Warren

Introducing The Lesson

Modified today by Rachel Ma

  • Hook: They will use the vocabulary and concepts that they learned in the last lesson to be able to understand how PID works, the terms associated with PID, and its effects in the 1D Hovering Drone Problem.

Main Lesson

Modified 2020-09-03 by Rara Ma

  • Show students video explaining PID controllers
The Proportional Term

Exercise: Students try different extreme values for the P term in the simulation

  • Explain the P term and try tuning in simulation.

  • Explain the effects of having a higher or lower proportional gain constant.

  • Explain affects of the proportional term regarding the altitude problem.

The Derivative Term

Exercise: Students try different extreme values for the D term in the simulation.

  • Explain the D term and try tuning in simulation.

  • Explain affects of the derivative term regarding the altitude problem and its limitations.

Teachers can show graphs of different levels of damping: over, under, critical.

The Integral Term

Exercise: Students try different extreme values for the I term in the simulation

  • Teachers will explain the I term

  • Explain affects of the integral term regarding the altitude problem and its limitations.

The overall control function
  • Explain the overall control function

Show diagram of PID controller Block Diagram

The figure below summarizes the inclusion of a PID controller within a basic control loop.

PID Controller Block Diagram
Tuning:
  • Explain why tuning a PID controller is necessary

Effects of K_p :

  • Describe the effects of K_p

Effects of K_i

  • Describe the effects of K_i

Effects of K_d

  • Describe the effects of K_d

Ending The Lesson

Modified today by Rachel Ma

  • Explain that while we are looking at the terms from the context of 1D altitute control, they are also used for others such as angle, velocity, position, etc of the drone.

  • Summarize the effects and what each term is

    General Effects of Control Terms

Useful Resources and References